By N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)

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O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n Press. , & Pearce, J. M . (1979). Latent inhibition of a C S d u r i n g C S - U S pnrings. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 5, 3 1 - 4 2 . H e t h , C . D . (1976). Simultaneous and b a c k w a r d fear conditioning as a function of n u m b e r of C S - U S pairings. JöMmd/ of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 1 1 7 - 1 2 9 . H o n e y , R. C , & Hall, G. (1991). Acquired equivalence and distinctiveness o f cues using a sensory-preconditioning procedure.

In D . E. Blackman & H . ), Behaviour analysis in theory and practice (pp. 159-180). Hillsdale, NJ: E r l b a u m . Hall, G. (1991). Perceptual and associative learning. O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n Press. , & Pearce, J. M . (1979). Latent inhibition of a C S d u r i n g C S - U S pnrings. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 5, 3 1 - 4 2 . H e t h , C . D . (1976). Simultaneous and b a c k w a r d fear conditioning as a function of n u m b e r of C S - U S pairings.

JoMWij/ of Experimental Psychology, 16, 171-180. Warren, H . C . (1921). A history of the association psychology. L o n d o n : Constable. C H A P T E R Instrumental Conditioning Anthony Dickinson I. I N T R O D U C T I O N Instrumental behavior refers to those actions whose acquisition and mainte­ nance depend on their consequences for the animal or, in others words, on the fact that the action is instrumental in causing some outcome. T h e func­ tional significance of the capacity for instrumental action is so obvious as to require little comment; it is this capacity that allows us and other animals to learn to control our environment in the service of our needs and desires.

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