By Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner

Colleges of fish, flocks of birds, and swarms of bugs are examples of 3-dimensional aggregation. masking either invertebrate and vertebrate species, the authors examine this pervasive organic phenomenon via quite a few disciplines, from physics to arithmetic to biology. the 1st part is dedicated to some of the tools, as a rule optical and acoustic, used to assemble third-dimensional information over the years. the second one part specializes in analytical equipment used to quantify development, crew kinetics, and interindividual interactions in the team. The part on behavioral ecology and evolution offers with the capabilities of aggregative habit from the viewpoint of an inherently egocentric person member. the ultimate part makes use of versions to clarify how team dynamics on the person point creates emergent trend on the point of the gang.

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Additional resources for Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate

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Digital CCD video cameras and electronic still cameras can usually be considered to be semimetric. Nonmetric amateur cameras are not designed for photogrammetry, but they are affordable and they have operational advantages such as low cost. The Nikonos is a nonmetric underwater camera. Nonmetric cameras exhibit high and unstable distortions and do not contain fiducial or reseau marks. In an analytical solution, it is the unreliability of distortions more than their magnitude that is of concern, because systematic errors can easily be modeled.

The three-dimensional structure of the object can be reconstructed by using an optical bench which illuminates the recording film with a coherent light beam and then uses a set of lenses to image the resultant pattern. A computer recording can then be made on a plane-by-plane basis to visualize the entire volume, or the two-dimensional images can be viewed directly. A system currently under development (Schulze et al. 1992) will have the capability of observing zooplankton at very high resolution in a volume of approximately 1000 cm3.

The following sections will indicate how this has been done in the past and how some of the emerging techniques will contribute to our knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of animal aggregations in the future. 2 Existing methods Existing methods for measuring three-dimensional information can be classified in many different ways. I have grouped available techniques into a somewhat ad hoc classification by similarity of mathematical procedure. Three-dimensional sensing can be appreciated through knowledge of mathematical techniques called inversion procedures.

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