By Vernon Cooray (auth.)

This ebook approximately lightning summarizes the essence of physics and results of lightning in a non-technical demeanour and offers an updated description of the phenomenon of lightning in easy language. beginning with the myths relating to lightning, the reader is brought to the mechanism of lightning flashes and their interactions with people, human-made platforms and Earth’s surroundings. many of the on hand books on lightning are written for the specialists within the box and there's a desire for a ebook that introduces the undergraduate and starting publish graduate scholars to the topic of lightning and prepares them for extra complex books intended for the specialists. This introductory e-book, that is in keeping with a chain of lectures given to undergraduate and postgraduate scholars in electric engineering, is meant to fill this want. adapted to the wishes of college scholars who plan to check electric engineering, meteorology, environmental or simple physics, it's also a invaluable reference source for laymen who're attracted to realizing extra in this phenomenon.

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However, the mechanism of its propagation is different from that of positive leaders. Let us consider the events taking place immediately after the generation of a streamer burst from the head of the negative leader. The same set of events take place immediately after the generation of a streamer burst from the cathode with the hot streamer stem acting as the negative leader head during the creation of the negative leader. A simplified schematic diagram giving the main features of propagation of a negative leader is shown in Fig.

6 Ampere’s Law and the Magnetic Field due to a Long Conductor 35 the surface of the ground at a horizontal distance D from the point charge is (see Fig. 6 À qh 2πε0 D2 þ h2 Á3=2 : ð3:15Þ Ampere’s Law and the Magnetic Field due to a Long Conductor Ampere’s law relates the line integral of the B-field or the H-field around a closed path to the electric current I passing through the closed path (Fig. 6): I B  dl ¼ μ0 I: ð3:16Þ l In the above equation the letter ‘l’ on the integral sign denotes that it is a line integral and the circle indicates that it is performed around a closed path.

This process is called thermalization. During thermalization, as the electron temperature decreases (because the electrons transfer a large fraction of their energy to ions and neutrals), the gas temperature increases, and very quickly all the components of the discharge, namely electrons, ions, and neutrals, achieve the same temperature and the discharge reaches a local thermodynamic equilibrium. The result is the conversion of the streamer stem into a hot conducting channel. This hot channel is called a leader or leader discharge.

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