By N B Davies; J R Krebs; Stuart A West

Typical choice, ecology and behavior -- checking out hypotheses in behavioural ecology -- financial judgements and the person -- Predators as opposed to prey: evolutionary palms races -- Competing for assets -- residing in teams -- Sexual choice, sperm pageant and sexual clash -- Parental care and kinfolk conflicts -- Mating structures -- intercourse allocation -- Social behaviours: altruism to spite -- Cooperation -- Altruism and clash within the social bugs -- conversation and indications -- end

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However, female survival was affected; full costs females had the lowest survival to the next breeding season, while free chicks females survived the best, with free eggs females having intermediate survival. These results, therefore, support the first hypothesis; there is a trade-off between increased reproductive effort and adult survival. When female fitness was calculated, full costs females had lower fitness than control females (who were left to raise the clutch size they initially chose; Fig.

The families of straight lines represent fitness isoclines, that is equal lifetime production of offspring (Fig. 1). In a stable population, present and future offspring will be of equal value and these lines will have slopes of −1. In an expanding population, current offspring are worth more than future offspring (current offspring gain a greater contribution to the gene pool) and the slopes are steeper. In a declining population, future offspring are worth more and slopes will be less than −1.

These four removed eggs were kept in a bed of moss and were returned to the clutch before incubation began. So this third group had to lay the two extra eggs, as well as incubate them, and raise the two extra chicks, thus paying the full cost of an increased clutch size. Costs: adult mortality Costs or benefits themes of behavioural ecology is investigating how various trade-offs are solved by natural selection. Marcel Visser and Kate Lessells (2001) measured the effects of these two extra trade-offs on great tit optimal clutch size by a clever experimental design (first used by Heany & Monaghan (1995) for studying clutch size in a seabird).

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