By I. R. Shafarevich (editor), V.I. Danilov, V.V. Shokurov

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Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have been used to fabricate nano-scale electronic devices, including field effect transistor, ultraviolet photo-detector, Schottky diode and light-emitting diode. Nanorods of gold, copper, alumina, silicon, platinum and nickel are also produced by direct chemical synthesis or electrochemical methods from porous alumina or polycarbonate membrane templates in presence of a surfactant [39–43]. 3 Nanofibers Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nm. They can be produced by using interfacial polymerization, electrospinning, and force spinning methods.

39 59. Maiti P, Nam PH, Okamoto M, Hasegawa N, Usuki A (2002) Influence of crystallization on intercalation, morphology, and mechanical properties of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites. Macromolecules 35(6):2042–2049 60. Okamoto M, Nam PH, Maiti P, Kotaka T, Hasegawa N, Usuki A (2001) A house of cards structure in polypropylene/clay nanocomposites under elongational flow. Nano Lett 1 (6):295–298 61. Tiwari VK, Prasad AK, Singh V, Jana KK, Misra M, Prasad CD, Maiti P (2013) Nanoparticle and process induced super toughened piezoelectric hybrid materials: the effect of stretching on filled system.

The filled symbols denote G/ and the unfilled symbols denote G//. The data presented were collected at (a) T ¼ 50  C, and, (b) T ¼ 180  C [120] solid-like viscoelastic behavior at low frequency region is due to strong filler-filler and filler-polymer interactions, which demonstrate that the dynamics of long-range polymer backbone chains is hindered prominently by the formation of the interconnected or network-like structures of CNFs [119]. The influence of nanofibers on the dynamic viscoelastic response of TPU/CNF nanocomposites is relatively weaker at high frequencies as compared to lower frequencies.

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