By W.-E Kalisch, K. Hägele (auth.), Seppo Lakovaara (eds.)

In 1906 fortress, wood worker, Clarke, Mast, and Barrows released a paper entitled "The results of inbreeding, cross-breeding, and choice upon the fertility and variability of Drosophila." this text, fifty five pages lengthy and released within the court cases of the Amer­ ican Academy, defined experiments played with Drosophila ampe­ lophila Lov, "a small dipterous insect recognized lower than a number of renowned names akin to the little fruit fly, pomace fly, vinegar fly, wine fly, and pickled fruit fly." This examine, which was once all started in 1901 and released in 1906, was once the 1st released experimental research utilizing Drosophila, in this case referred to as Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. after all, Drosophila was once identified prior to the experiments of Cas­ tles's staff. The small flies swarming round grapes and wine pots have without doubt been often called lengthy as wine has been produced. the respect of what used to be the 1st recognized misclassification of the fruit flies is going to Fabricius who named them Musca funebris in 1787. It used to be the Swedish dipterist, C.F. Fallen, who in 1823 replaced the identify of ~ funebris to Drosophila funebris which was once heralding the start of the genus Drosophila. Present-day Drosophila learn used to be all started simply eighty years in the past and primary released simply seventy five years in the past. even if the historical past of Drosophila study is brief, the effect and quantity of analysis on Drosophila has been great over the last decades.

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Advances in Genetics, Development, and Evolution of Drosophila

In 1906 citadel, chippie, Clarke, Mast, and Barrows released a paper entitled "The results of inbreeding, cross-breeding, and choice upon the fertility and variability of Drosophila. " this text, fifty five pages lengthy and released within the court cases of the Amer­ ican Academy, defined experiments played with Drosophila ampe­ lophila Lov, "a small dipterous insect recognized less than quite a few well known names comparable to the little fruit fly, pomace fly, vinegar fly, wine fly, and pickled fruit fly.

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The aim of this work was to establish meiotic interchanges in Drosophila females. F. L. PODOPLELOVA was to observe spontaneous interchanges. In this way it was possible to compare nonhomologous pairing patterns on the basis of distribution and interchange data. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESULTS The genotype of the females examined are shown in Fig. 1. They all had compounds of autosome 2. Females of the first genotype had structurally normal X chromosomes. Females of the second genotype had a heterozygous XY compound.

1962, Genaktivitaten in den Riesenchromosomen von Ch. tentans und ihre Beziehungen zur Entwicklung. II. ), 13:385. 46 R. DE FRUTOS AND A. LATORRE Frutos, R. , 1981, Patterns of puffing activity and chromosomal polymorphism in D. subobscura. I. J and U chromosomes, Genetica, (in press). Kunze-MUhl, E. , 1958, Weitere Untersuchungen Uber die chromosomale Struktur und die natUrlichen Strukturtypen von D. ), 9:559. Moriwaki, D. , 1969, Studies on puffing in the salivary gland chromosomes of D. ananassae, Japan.

MATERIALS AND METHODS The strain of Drosophila subobscura used in this investigation was the homozygous laboratory strain K228. It has been inbred for many years. The K228 strain is homozygous for the following chromosomal arrangements: Ast ' J 1 , USE' Est' and 0st. The data for the K228 puffing patterns are based on determinations from individuals sampled at several developmental stages: 3rd instar, 0 hour prepupae (time of the eversion of the anterior spiracles), and 1/2 hour, 1 1/2 hour, and 2 1/2 hours after puparium formation.

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