By Ronald K. Hambleton, Peter F. Merenda, Charles D. Spielberger

Adapting academic and mental assessments for Cross-Cultural evaluate seriously examines and advances new tools and practices for adapting exams for cross-cultural review and examine. The foreign try fee (ITC) directions for attempt edition and conceptual and methodological matters in attempt variation are defined intimately, and questions of ethics and predicament for validity of try rankings in cross-cultural contexts are conscientiously tested. Advances in attempt translation and variation method, together with statistical id of incorrect try goods, constructing equivalence of alternative language models of a try out, and methodologies for evaluating assessments in a number of languages, are reviewed and evaluated. The e-book additionally makes a speciality of adapting skill, success, and character assessments for cross-cultural overview in academic, business, and medical settings. This e-book furthers the ITC's undertaking of stimulating examine on well timed subject matters linked to evaluation. It presents a very good source for classes in psychometric equipment, try out development, and academic and/or mental evaluate, checking out, and dimension. Written through across the world identified students in psychometric tools and cross-cultural psychology, the gathering of chapters also needs to offer crucial details for educators and psychologists excited by cross-cultural review, in addition to scholars meaning to such careers.

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Translating tests: Some practi­ cal guidelines. European Psychologist, 1, 89-99. van de Vijver, F. J. , & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross-cultural research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. van de Vijver, F. J. , & Leung, K. (2000). Methodological issues in psycho­ logical research on culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, 33-51. van de Vijver, F. J. , & Poortinga, Y. H. (1991). Testing across cultures. In R. K. Hambleton & J. ), Advances in educational and psychological testing (pp.

Translators should participate in such a project team and be involved in the decision making process, and their opinions and views should be actively sought and acknowledged. According to Brislin (1986), this approach can greatly improve the quality of an adaptation. The teamwork approach can help to (1) enable the use of the back-translation methods (see step 5, below); (2) allow translators to compare and discuss their work and thus improve on the relevance and quality of translations; and (3) can help to ensure that specialist knowledge in all required fields is accessible.

4. 4 Test developers/publishers should provide evidence that item content and stimulus materials are familiar to all intended populations. Rationale/Explanation. Any adapted test that proves easier or more difficult to read or understand because of the specific content will introduce an additional source of bias. In some parts of the world, different units are used to express quantity in, for example, weight, length, and money. An adaptation of a test can be more difficult for the target population if the units used are less familiar or if they require different mathematical operations (see, Hambleton, Yu, & Slater, 1999).

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