By Geoff Layton
Access to historical past: From Kaiser to Fuhrer: Germany 1900-1945 for Edexcel charts the advancements in Germany from 1900-1945 together with an exam of:
- the second one Reich: society and governent 1900-1919
- the democratic test 1919-29
- the increase of the Nazis
- existence in wartime Germany 1939-45
Throughout the ebook, key dates, phrases and concerns are highlighted, and old interpretations of key debates are defined. precis diagrams are incorporated to consolidate wisdom and figuring out of the interval, and exam-style questions and counsel written by way of an examiner give you the chance to increase examination skills
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Additional info for Access to History. From Kaiser to Fuhrer: Germany 1900-1945 for Edexcel
Key terms Weltpolitik generated its own problems too. The budget had run into debt as the mounting costs of maintaining the army, expanding the navy and running the empire took effect. If the ‘glories’ of Weltpolitik were to be continued then substantial tax increases had to be introduced. Bülow was astute enough to realise that this was likely to cause a political storm – and so it did. In 1905 he suggested a two-pronged attack on the deﬁcit by proposing an increase in indirect taxes and an inheritance tax.
Nationalist organisations • The Pan-German League, which was committed to an aggressive expansionist foreign policy to achieve Germany’s world role. • The Navy League, to advance the Kaiser’s policy of expanding the German navy (see page 38). • The German Society for the Eastern Marches, also known as the Hakatisten, which campaigned for a repressive anti-Polish policy. Politically afﬁliated groups • The working-class trade unions, which were represented by the SPD, campaigning for improving living and working conditions.
In the Reichstag, Bethmann, unlike Bülow in 1908, stood by the army and the Kaiser, but the political opposition was intense and the Chancellor received a massive vote of no conﬁdence. Yet, nothing really happened. The Zabern affair crystallised the divisions in German politics and society. For Röhl (see page 29), the incident shows how, right up to 1914, the Kaiserreich was still dominated by the actions, decisions and personality of the Kaiser and his supporters. The very fact that Bethmann was able to continue as Chancellor, despite a major defeat in the Reichstag, is seen as proof enough of Key question Key term The problem of imperial ﬁnance remained the key stumblingblock and in 1912–13 it came to a head over defence expenditure.