By Richard M. Freeland

This publication examines the evolution of yank universities throughout the years following global warfare II. Emphasizing the significance of switch on the campus point, the booklet combines a normal attention of nationwide developments with a detailed research of 8 assorted universities in Massachusetts. The 8 are Harvard, M.I.T., Tufts, Brandeis, Boston college, Boston collage, Northeastern and the college of Massachusetts. large analytic chapters research significant advancements like enlargement, the increase of graduate schooling and study, the professionalization of the school, and the decline of common schooling. those chapters additionally evaluation criticisms of academia that arose within the past due Sixties and the destiny of assorted reform proposals through the Seventies. extra chapters specialise in the 8 campuses to demonstrate the forces that drove other kinds of institutions--research universities, college-centered universities, city deepest universities and public universities--in responding to the conditions of the postwar years.

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In truth, the new school could not properly be 23 Contexts called a college at all in the American sense of the term. It was organized on the European plan of Jesuit education, incorporating both secondary and collegiate courses in a seven-year program of classical studies. All of the initial students required lower-level work. Boston College did not produce its first bachelor's degrees until 1877. The college developed slowly but steadily during the nineteenth century. The city's Irish community was expanding and, despite much poverty, included many families who could afford educational opportunities for their sons.

T. that had the firmest hold on a steady stream of applicants as well as a reliable base of monetary support that limited their dependence on tuition. The competition for students had a political as well as an entrepreneurial dimension. This fact stemmed from the power of the commonwealth to grant institutional charters designating the fields in which degrees could be offered. Academic leaders quickly learned the uses of politics in protecting their interests. Harvard, for example, achieved a privileged position in medicine by per36 Education in Massachusetts before ig45 suading state authorities to restrict entry to the field by other campuses.

The accumulating criticisms apparently affected the governing boards. In selecting a successor, they turned to one of Eliot's most persistent adversaries, a lawyer turned political scientist, A. Lawrence Lowell. 5 Lowell led reform of the undergraduate program, giving it new structure through concentration and distribution requirements that became a pattern for colleges throughout the nation. To intensify and control the undergraduate experience and use it to strengthen character as well as intellect, Lowell built residence halls, hoping to foster skills in social interaction among individuals from varying backgrounds.

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