By Ira M. Lapidus

Lengthy thought of a vintage, A historical past of Islamic Societies is now that rather more worthy a reference for basic readers and students alike. generally praised for its balanced and entire account, Ira Lapidus' paintings has been totally revised in its insurance of every state and area of the Muslim global via 2001. It accommodates the origins and evolution of Islamic societies and brings into concentration the ancient techniques that gave form to the manifold different types of modern Islam. The concluding chapters survey the growing to be impact of the Islamist pursuits inside nationwide states and of their transnational or international dimensions, together with the Islamic revival, Islamist politics and terrorism. An up to date dialogue of the jobs of ladies in Islamic societies is additional, with new sections approximately Afghanistan and Muslims in Europe, the United States, and the Philippines. Ira M. Lapidus is Professor Emeritus of heritage on the collage of California at Berkeley. His many books and articles comprise Islam, Politics and Social events (University of California Press, 1988) and Muslim towns within the Later center a long time (Cambridge, 1984).

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33 34 ¶ past history Persian turung. An interesting term of Middle Eastern origin, traceable in various forms, designating citrus fruit. But then we find something very puzzling. Most of the languages of Europe use a word of Persian origin to designate this fruit, but in the languages of the Middle East, in Turkish, in Persian, and in Arabic they call it Portugal. So why is the fruit which we in the West call by a Middle Eastern name called in the Middle East by the name of a West European country?

Travel literature is of particular interest. Pilgrimage is one of the basic ob­ ligations of the Muslim faith, and every Muslim is required to go on pilgrimage to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina at least once in a lifetime. This brought pilgrims every year, traveling great distances from all the lands of Islam, in what must surely be the most important example of voluntary, personal mobility in pre-modern times. Many of the pilgrims wrote accounts of their travels, includ­ ing descriptions of the places that they visited, the people that they met, and— more relevantly—the foodstuffs that they encountered and consumed in the course of their peregrinations.

They were after all not Englishmen or Frenchmen or Austrians; they were local people who lived in Turkey. They were not citizens in the modern sense (the word has no relevance to that time) but they and their families were subjects of the Ottoman Sultan, and entirely at his mercy. They did not enjoy any kind of diplomatic status (not that the Ottomans in the high period of Ottoman rule cared all that much for diplomatic status, though they generally respected it). But the Levantine dragomans, until a very late stage, were not diplomats, and the embassies almost all agreed that they were far too scared of the Turkish authorities to deliver any unpalatable message honestly.

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