By Mary N. Arai (auth.)
Scyphozoa have attracted the eye of many varieties of individuals. Naturalists watch their swish locomotion. Fishermen could dread the swarms that could hinder fishing or devour larval fish. Bathers retreat from the water in the event that they are stung. humans from a few Asiatic nations consume the medusae. Comparative physiologists study them as in all likelihood easy types for the functioning of assorted platforms. This ebook integrates information from these and different investigations right into a practical biology of scyphozoa. it's going to emphasize the big variety of adaptive responses attainable in those morphologically rather uncomplicated animals. The e-book will be aware of the examine of the final 35 years, in part simply because there was a swift growth of data in the course of that interval, and in part simply because a lot of the former paintings used to be summarized by means of books released among 1961 and 1970. Bibliographies of papers on scyphozoa have been incorporated in Mayer (1910) and Kramp (1961). Taxonomic diagnoses also are incorporated in these monographs, in addition to in a monograph at the scyphomedusae of the USSR released through Naumov (Naumov, 1961). such a lot impor tantly, a genenttion of scyphozoan employees has used as its 'bible' the monograph through F.S.Russell (1970) The Medusae of the British Isles. despite its restrictive name, his e-book stories lots of the info at the biology of scyphozoa as much as that date.
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The neurons now lie on the optically clear, acellular mesoglea. Two synapses (arrows) are shown at higher magnification in the inset. a axon; m mesoglea; s somata (cell body). 1m. (Source: Anderson and Spencer, 1989. v. 10). The large unbranched neurites have often been referred to as axons although use of this term does not necessarily imply that conduction of the impulse is away from the cell bodies. The neurites contain unusual large vacuoles with cisternaelike inclusions (Anderson and Schwab, 1981).
Desmosomes observed connecting the ends of pairs of myoepithelial cells may transmit tension from the end of one cell to the next (Burnett and Sutton, 1969; Blanquet and Riordan, 1981; Anderson and Schwab, 1981). Desmosomes are thickened regions of the plasma membranes where adjacent cells are tightly attached. Lateral desmosomes have also been observed between adjacent striated muscle cells at the Z-lines of in-phase sarcomeres. These may transmit tension at angles to the axis of contraction. Perkins et al.
The marginal centres receive various inputs that influence the rate of output. In addition to input from other marginal centres via the MNN, they are also influenced by information brought through the DNN, by information from the marginal sense organs, and probably by direct effects of factors such as temperature and light. The frequency of beating decreases with increased size of the medusa. 3 Structure and function of the motor nerve net The presence of a nerve net controlling the subumbrellar swimming muscle was first suggested by cutting experiments.